Of all physical quantities, energy is probably the most important. Energy expresses the capacity of a body or a system to perform work. Nature works by using energy to transform matter. This is done via processes (physical, chemical, etc.).
However, in order to realize these processes it is necessary to have information. Energy on its own is not sufficient. One must know what to do with it and how to do it. This is where information comes into the picture. Information is stored and delivered in a variety of ways. The DNA, for example, encodes biological information.
Information is measured in bits. Shannon’s Information Theory states that entropy is a measure of information:
Examples of interdependencies are depicted below:
An example of structure (in 29 dimensions) is shown below. It has the form of a map. The black dots represent the said interdependencies. In general, the map’s structure changes in time.
This is represented by the following equation which is also a formal definition of complexity.
In the above equation S stands for structure while E represents entropy. An example of the spontaneous emergence of structure is that of protein folding from a set of amino acids:
Other examples of emergence of structure are biospheres, societies, or galaxies.
An example of structure destruction (structure to entropy transformation over time) is:
This brings us to the key point of this blog
Complexity not only captures and quantifies the intensity of the dynamic interaction between Structure and Entropy, it also measures the amount of information that is the result of structure. In fact, entropy – the ‘E’ in the complexity equation – is already a measure of information. However, the ‘S’ holds additional information which is ‘contained’ in the structure of the interdependency map (known also as complexity map). In other words, S encodes additional information to that provided by the Shannon equation.
In the example in 29 dimensions shown above the information breakdown is as follows:
Shannon’s information = 60.25 bits
Information due to structure = 284.80 bits
Total information = 345.05 bits